Eduardo Ruman (In Memoriam)
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Denise Ruman
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Religião e Espiritualidade / 24/10/2020


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Judaism was the first monotheistic religion in the history of mankind (more than three thousand years).

Despite being the smallest in number of believers (around 15 million, most of them in North America and Israel), it is one of the great Abrahamic religions, along with Christianity and Islam.

Judaism is a word of Greek origin (Iudaïsmós) for the toponym "Judah".

According to Jewish tradition, God would have made a covenant with the Hebrews, making them the chosen people who will enjoy the promised land.

This covenant took place with Abraham and his descendants and was strengthened by the revelation of divine Laws to Moses, on Mount Sinai.

Therefore, the Jew is indirectly a member of the tribe of Judah, one of the twelve sons of Jacob and a founding patriarch of one of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Likewise, the Jewish religion is basically of a family character. It is in this social nucleus that it is preserved and spread, in view of the non-messianic character of Judaism.

The synagogue, the Jewish temple, fulfills the function of gathering the faithful to practice reading the sacred texts, under the guidance of a priest. He is called a Rabbi and does not necessarily have a different social status that gives him privileges.

Despite the existence of courts for Jewish law, religious authority rests with sacred texts, of which the "Torah" is the most important.

Its authorship is attributed to Moses and narrates the "Origin of the World", besides bringing the "Divine Commandments and Laws".

On the other hand, it is worth mentioning that Judaism is not a homogeneous religion; roughly speaking, we can divide it into:

Orthodox: who consider the Torah as an immutable source of divine knowledge, but do not strictly follow the laws.

Ultra-orthodox: who have traditions that strictly follow sacred laws.

Conservatives: who have moderate and reformist attitudes and interpretations.

Judaism Practices and Customs

The liturgical language is Hebrew, with which they address the absolute entity of Judaism, Yahweh or Jehovah, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent creator of everything that exists.

Some of the Jewish sacraments are:

Circumcision (Brit milá), performed on male newborns;

the Rite of Passage to Adulthood (B'nai Mitzvá);

Marriage and Mourning (Shiv'á).

Among the most important dates, Easter stands out, when the liberation of the Jewish people in Egypt is commemorated (1300 BC); Saturdays (Sabbath) are special days in the Jewish religion, as they are reserved for spirituality.

History of Judaism

Judaism began when Abraham was ordered by God to abandon polytheism and migrate to Canaan (Palestine) in the mid-1800 BC.

his grandson, Jacob, arise the twelve founding sons of the twelve tribes that constituted the Jewish people, who are enslaved in Egypt, until they were freed by Moses in 1300 BC.

Later on, under the reign of Solomon, son of David, the kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judah appeared. These kingdoms will succumb to the Babylonian empire and, in the first century, to the Romans.

It will be in 1948, after the Holocaust that killed millions of Jews during World War II, that Judaism will be strengthened again, with the creation of the state of Israel, which lasts until today.


The biggest sin in Judaism is idolatry.

The mystical knowledge of Judaism is called "Kabbalah".

Judaism considers "Jewish" all those who were born to a Jewish mother, in addition to those who were converted.

The hats used in the synagogues are called “Kipá” and represent respect for God.

Judaism is not a missionary religion, so it does not seek to convert people, like Christianity.

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