Islam | Religião e Espiritualidade | JORNAL PACIFISTA 

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Religião e Espiritualidade / 14/12/2020


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Islam is the monotheistic religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad in 622. "Islam" is an Arabic word that means "submission".

Thus, those who obey "Allah", and accept Muhammad as their prophet, are called Muslims. The term Allah, in Arabic, means "God".

The holy book of Islam is called "Koran" or "Koran". In it are gathered the words of God, revealed to the prophet Muhammad. Some characteristics of Islam are:

The belief in the unity of God;

the sacred books that God revealed to guide humanity;

the prophets;

The angels;



According to the Islamic religion, the Koran or Koran is a collection of God's revelations to the Prophet Muhammad. It was written in Arabic between the years 610 and 632.

This collection contains the exact words of God, revealed by the angel Gabriel. It is seen as a miracle and must be preserved unchanged.

The Koran is divided into 114 “surahs” (chapters) of different sizes. The first surah is a brief introductory sentence and the rest are organized by size, starting with the longest.

The first surahs revealed to the Prophet are smaller, so much of the Qur'an is in reverse chronological order.

Muslims claim that in the Qur'an, God speaks of his essence, his relationship with human beings and how they will be held accountable to the Last Judgment.

Although the Koran refers to Muhammad and the ancient Islamic community, it offers moral guidance for people of all ages and races. It recognizes passages the Jewish and Christian Old Testament; Jesus is considered a great prophet.

The Pillars of Islam

The Sacred Law of Islam is called "Sharia", the "road" through which God determines Muslims to follow.

Sharia law regulates all aspects of life. These regulations cover essential religious duties known as the "Five Pillars", designed to develop the spirit of submission to God. Are they:

Profession of Faith: "There is only one God and Muhammad is his prophet" is the fundamental creed of Islam.

Ritual Prayers: Muslims pray five times a day, always looking towards Mecca: at dawn, at noon, in the afternoon, at sunset and at bedtime,.

Donations: An annual contribution called “zakat” is offered by Muslims with possessions to those in need.

Fasting: During the Islamic month of Ramadan, Muslims fast daily between before sunrise until dusk. During fasting, the consumption of food, drinks and cigarettes is prohibited. Children, the sick and the elderly are released the Ramadan fast.

Pilgrimage: The pilgrimage to Mecca (Hadj) must be carried out at least once during the life of every Muslim. In Mecca, pilgrims surround a sacred sanctuary (the Black Stone, known as Kaaba) seven times in the courtyard of the Al-Haram Mosque in Saudi Arabia.

Symbols of Islam Hilal

The waning moon, called hilal in Arabic, is one of the Islamic symbols.

Islam groups

The followers of Islam are divided into two main groups: the "Sunnis" and the "Shiites".

Sunnis, who make up about 90% of Muslims, are known as "People of the Sun and the Collectivity".

The name derives the fact that they claim to follow the suna or “path taken” (the name given to the words and deeds of Muhammad). In addition, they claim to follow the paths of Muslim “collectivity”.

The Shiite group emerged a dispute over the leadership of the Islamic community after Muhammad's death. The followers of his cousin and son-in-law Ali, consider themselves the only legitimate followers of the prophet. Several Shiite sub-divisions have also formed.


Muhammad (Muhammad, in Arabic) was born in Mecca around 570.

He spent most of his life as a merchant, when around 40 years old he received the call of the angel Gabriel. He claimed to have been sent to bring the good news and warn his people against idolatry so that they could then find the true God.

Those who believed and obeyed the laws of the Koran would be rewarded with paradise, while those who rejected its message would be punished in hell.

Muhammad amassed opponents, especially among the wealthy class of merchants. He migrated Mecca to Medina, a city located 300 km north of Mecca, along with his followers.

This migration, known as "Hégira", took place in July 622, marking the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Currently, the Islamic calendar is in the year 1438.

In Medina, Muhammad became head of a new religious community that, in 629, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, he was received without resistance.

Recognized as a religious leader and founder of Islam, the prophet died in 632, after spreading the message of Allah throughout much of the Arabian Peninsula.

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